The Use of Fish Breeding Hormones in Fish Farming in Malaysia

Fish consumption has risen in recent years as a result of population growth and the ongoing quest for a healthy diet. As per the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE, 2015), fish farming rose by 1.5 percent on overall fish production in 2015, in comparison to the prior year. Aquaculture in Brazil is now expanding rapidly in all parts of the country, thanks to developments in management control of fish farming to meet rising global demand for fish and also the economic and environmental viability of the industry.

What is fish keeping?

Aquarists who keep fish in a home aquarium or garden pond practice fishkeeping, which is a good pastime. As a part of agriculture, also there is a piscicultural fishkeeping industry.

What is the use of fish breeding hormone?

Whenever one sex of a species does have the ability to develop bigger and quicker than another, breeding hormones are employed in fish farming to improve fish production. Hormonal approaches for fish breeding involve injecting hormones into broodstocks intramuscularly or intraperitoneally. Estrogens and androgens are commonly used in the strategy of increasing fish output based on sexual dimorphism. These chemicals should be handled with care to make sure of environmental, food safety, and biological, because they can pollute the environment and cause endocrine system alterations, resulting in negative health consequences on consumers.

What are hormones?

Hormones are a form of chemical messengers which allow various kinds of cells to communicate with one another by recognizing their function and identity via protein structures called receptors, which are molecular recognition specialization. A variety of molecular events occur after the closeness as well as hormone-receptor interaction, resulting in distinct biological responses.

What are steroids?

Steroid hormones are a group of hormones that are created from cholesterol. They are divided into five classes depending on their structural characteristics: estrogens, progestogens, androgens, mineral corticoids, and glucocorticoids. A class of sex steroids is made up of the three former subgroups. Estrogens as well as androgens, that can be natural (found in nature) or synthetic, are by far the most common sex hormones utilized in fish aquaculture (synthesized or generated in a laboratory).

Use of Hormones in aquaculture

Hormones are utilized in aquaculture in sex reversal as well as artificial reproduction. The first keeps the production chain going by producing seeds regularly. Whenever the male and female grow at varying rates and/or acquire weight, the second option is adopted. In teleost fish, this gender difference is fairly prevalent, and it usually happens around adolescence. However, using hormonal agents in fish farming can have negative repercussions, including possible dangers to human and environmental health due to hormone-dependent parameters. Furthermore, its use outside of acceptable animal husbandry standards may have an impact on not only the fish farming production system but rather the commercialization of the fish farming industry.

Why do you use hormones for fish farming?

The primary reasons for use of hormones for fish farming:

  • Sex reversal
    During sex differentiation, hormone therapy can be used to reverse sex differentiation. The use of hormones in fish farming in sex reversal attempts to boost the rate of growth or weight gain of monosex populations. The genotype, which is defined by the genes responsible for gonad production, and the phenotypic, which would be the appearance of the ovary or testis, are the two types of sex in fish. Even during the ontogeny of fish larvae, phenotype differentiation happens naturally, usually earlier in females than in males. This is a complicated process that can be altered using androgen and estrogen hormones.
  • Artificial reproduction
    Hormones are also used in aquaculture for seed production, or artificial reproduction, which is vital for controlling gonad development and ovulation. Exogenous hormones can be used to induce or advance or delay or arrest fish development, as well as to make spawning happen a few months earlier or later than usual. Fish farmers get more flexibility throughout the marketing of larvae as well as young fish by lengthening the reproductive period. By limiting spawning to a specific time frame, more time and resources are available.

When one sex of a species can develop bigger and quicker than the other, hormones are employed in fish farming to improve fish production. Estrogens and androgens are commonly used in the strategy of increasing fish output based on sexual dimorphism. To breed in captivity, brood fishes are prompted to release eggs by pituitary hormone or any other synthetic hormone. The pituitary gland of fish is mostly employed for induced breeding.