Medicines for Sustainable Fish Farming


Global aquaculture, which includes farmed aquatic plants, aquatic animals, as well as non-food items, has increased dramatically in the last 50 years, reaching roughly 106 million tonnes in live weight.


Some fish medicines for sustainable fish farming


Soil and water treatment medicines

The preparation of the pond begins with the treatment of the water and soil. In aquaculture ponds and hatcheries, a variety of chemicals are employed to mineralize surplus organic materials, alter pH, and disinfect. For pond preparation, lime in the form of limestone, slaked lime, or un-slaked lime was traditionally employed. However, to increase productivity, numerous novel compositions have been developed. Dried ponds can also be disinfected and sterilised with active potassium permanganate or iodine. To reactivate the soil, porous aluminium silicate and zeolite are used that are available commercially in conjunction with lime to stabilise algae growth and absorb fouling particles.

Disinfectants for Aquaculture

Disinfectants are widely employed in several sectors of aquaculture around the world. Intensive culture, notably in finfish and grow-out facilities, uses the most of it. They are employed in the preparation of sites and equipment, the maintenance of cleanliness throughout the production cycle, and in some cases, the treatment of disease. Formalin is also used to treat protozoan infections. Beize is a medicine that can be used to treat ulcerative colitis, bacterial infections, fungal infections, and other infectious disorders. BKC is the most often utilised drug for bacterial illness control, and Efinol can also be used to promote stress resistance.

Herbicides and Piscicides

Eradication of undesirable predatory fishes is a frequent pre-stocking management procedure in aquaculture. Mahua oil cake, tea seed cake, various plant derivatives, and anhydrous ammonium compounds are the most commonly used fish piscicides.

Aquatic weeds are abundant in fishponds around the country and are unwanted because they disrupt the oxygen balance and remove nutrients from aquatic systems, posing major concerns. In ponds, pesticides such as algicides and herbicides are used to minimise or eliminate the quantity of undesired aquatic vegetation. Larger aquatic plants form dense groups that make feeding and harvesting more difficult. 2,4-D, paraquat, Dalapon, Diuron, and other ammonia derivatives are among the herbicides used to combat aquatic weeds.

Therapeutants That Are Frequently Used

Intensification has resulted in a rise in the use of antimicrobials in aquaculture due to an increase in the occurrence of various bacterial infections. Antibiotics are widely used as treatments for groups of infected fish for brief periods.

The FDA has allowed the use of oxytetracyclinedihydrate, sulfamerazine, florfenicol, oxytetracycline hydrochloride, and a medication combination of sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim in aquaculture as the fish contain less than a prescribed optimum residue limit. Vaccines against several bacterial and viral infections are created and used in aquaculture which has been used commercially as well. Infestations of single-celled protozoa and multi-cellular crustaceans, trematodes, as well as arthropods are found in abundance in freshwater fish.

Anaesthetics used in the treatment of fish

Anaesthetics are chemical or physical substances that are used to calm animals by causing them to lose mobility, equilibrium, consciousness, and, eventually, reflex activity. Anaesthetics are useful in fisheries and aquaculture for minimising the stress produced by handling and transport.

Feed Additives

Aquaculture methods have progressed to the point where supplementary fish meals made from agricultural by-products are being phased out in favour of nutritionally balanced species-specific full diets. This well-balanced meal includes colours, vitamins, chemo-attractants, and preservatives such as mould inhibitors and antioxidants, among other things. Acidifiers, exogenous enzymes, and other additions are used to improve digestibility while also reducing anti-nutrient effects. Probiotics, prebiotics, phytogenics, and immune stimulants are among the other additives that aim to promote gut health, stress tolerance, and disease resistance.

Growth Promoters for Fish

Aqua boost contains an immune stimulant that boosts fish’s non-specific immunity.

Use of Probiotics in Fish Farming

Bacterial culture lives and fermentation products which are abundant in extracellular probiotics are the most popular probiotics utilised in pond management. Improved decomposition of organic matter; lower concentrations of phosphorous and nitrogen, good algal growth; increased dissolved oxygen availability; control of nitrite, ammonia, as well as hydrogen sulphide; lower incidence of disease; and increased survival and fish production are all advantages of using probiotics in aquaculture ponds. However, investigations have indicated that the addition of probing has very few good effects.

The addition of probiotics to aquaculture ponds like Bacillus Streptococcus faecalis is not anticipated to pose any food or environmental safety risks. Progut and Aquakure-like products are extremely useful to both gut and environmental health.

Conclusion
Fish medicines are used in aquaculture to treat bacterial infections. Antibiotics are sometimes used to treat infections, but they are more usually used to prevent diseases by treating the water or fish before they become infected.